What We Know about Human Traffickers in Vietnam


  • Le Thi Hong Luong
  • Dr Caitlin Wyndham




human trafficking, traffickers, trafficking data, sexual exploitation, labour exploitation, child labour, ethnic minorities, justice, Vietnam


Myths and misconceptions about traffickers, the nature of trafficking, and how the crime varies in different jurisdictions pose challenges for prevention work, rehabilitating offenders, and achieving justice for victims. This article, based on an analysis of over 100 human trafficking court cases in Vietnam, outlines the reality of one particular trafficking crime: the trafficking of Vietnamese women and girls for sexual exploitation in China. We show that the majority of the prosecuted traffickers are similarly poor and vulnerable as their victims. Most are from ethnic minorities, with a poor educational background, and few income generation opportunities. Based on this evidence, we discuss some challenges associated with prosecution of these particular traffickers and suggest more effective approaches for human trafficking prevention.


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Author Biographies

Le Thi Hong Luong

Le Thi Hong Luong is the Anti-Trafficking Coordinator at Blue Dragon Children’s Foundation. She coordinates and supports the counter-trafficking efforts of the organisation, including coordinating rescue and repatriation of victims, training for government officials and law enforcement, and prevention work in vulnerable communities. She was the lead researcher analysing the court case data, the most comprehensive research into trafficking and traffickers conducted in Vietnam to date.

Dr Caitlin Wyndham

Dr Caitlin Wyndham is the Resources and Partnerships Leader at Blue Dragon Children’s Foundation. She has been living in Vietnam since 2001, working for a range of NGOs and UN Agencies addressing poverty, disability, and human trafficking. Caitlin is inspired to challenge and fight inequality and injustice in all its forms, and in her current position oversees Blue Dragon’s anti-trafficking work, including research and analysis to contribute to the body of knowledge and enhance the effectiveness of counter-trafficking initiatives. Caitlin holds a PhD in Public Policy from the Central European University.




How to Cite

Le, L., & Wyndham, C. (2022). What We Know about Human Traffickers in Vietnam. Anti-Trafficking Review, (18), 33–48. https://doi.org/10.14197/atr.201222183